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A summarizing report on China’s on national IT strategy and

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    A summarizing report on China’s on national IT strategy and initiatives
    Government online

    A summarizing report on China’s on national IT strategy and initiatives 作业代写
     As China has found commercial benefits from the National information infrastructure, it launched a series of online programs to accelerate the government’s pace of implementing and using the information economy to promote the economic development. On January 22,1999, China Telecom and many other departments launched the Government Online project. The project interconnects the government officersat various government levels. The IT strategy will promote the setup of government websites to provide the services and information for the public. At the same time, it can also facilitate the communication and collaboration between the government and the IT industries. The government wants to build the tone of online development by providing the basic infrastructure and connecting the government agencies at all levels by using the internet technology.
    The Government Online Projectis scheduled to implement in three stages. The first stage mainly connects about one thousand government offices and agencies by the internet technology. The second stage focuses upon making the government offices transfer their information system into compatible electronic form to share the information with the public. The third stage will make the government offices and agencies become paperless. The first and second stages take one or two years to complete, with the third stage requiring a much longer-term effort. After the Government Online Project was implemented, 68 state-level government departments had put their names on-line and 60 percent of State-level departments had established sites via China’s main Internet service provider: 163/169.net. By the end of 2000, 80 percent of all government agencies, both local and national, had established websites.
    Chinese government websites offer the standard range of information, from official introductions of departmental functions and responsibilities, to details about tax payments and project bids, and information about State and local laws and regulations. Some of these sites are also beginning to establish online administration systems.
    Before implementing the Government Online Project,the Chinese government launched the “Golden Projects” in 1993 as a series of separate information infrastructure initiatives aimed at developing an information economy and building administrative capabilities. The golden project consisted of three elements: Golden Bridge, Golden Card and Golden customers. Of course, the Chinese government also launched other golden projects to promote the development of the IT strategy. But the first three Golden Projectsis the most important for the development of the e-commerce.
    Enterprise online and E-commerce
    TheGovernment Online Project is the first project. On June 19,2000,China Telecom’s Data Communication Bureau and the State Economic and Trade Commission’s Economic Information Center launched the Enterprise Online Project.The purpose of the Enterprise Online Project is to encourage private enterprises as well as large state owned enterprises to build websites for the exchange of information, both between enterprises and with their customer base .The government’s goal in the project is intended to help facilitate enterprise management restructuring so that the enterprises can make full use of the new medium.
    The theoretical basis of the Enterprises Online Project is that by transferring important business practices and related material onto the Internet, enterprises will be able to exchange information with clients and other enterprises, and start to make full of the operational, transaction and management efficiencies which such practices allow. Because of the effort of the governments,more than 10 percent of the enterprises have used the online project to trade with other enterprises.By the end of 2000, According to one government consultancy report, while 56 percent of enterprises had their own websites, only 13.8 percent participated in online procurement; and while 87.7 percent released information on the web, and 79.1 percent collected clients’ information, only 27 percent received online orders.But the major state enterprises were reluctant to invest in the e-business. Even if they had a website, they didn’t upgrade the information in time.
    In China, there are two categories about the e-commerce portals. One is the so-called pureplay and another is the enterprise play.For the pure play, they think it is attractive to provide ‘one-stop shops’ and total solutions’. But for the B2B companies, they face many challenges.They must operate in a land of insufficient transport and communication networks, deal with banks that cannot process transactions from one branch to another, and of restrictions on services such as insurance and distribution.
     A summarizing report on China’s on national IT strategy and initiatives 作业代写
     
    E-citizenry
    In China,Informal levels of communication through chat rooms and web sites are popular.In the case of China a cautious opening of new media channels to Government and even to the Communist Party is underway, such as the People’s Daily Online.The idea that media, new or old, can by itself undermine authoritarianism is clearly fanciful, but what made the potential of the Internet appear more powerfully subversive of authority of all kinds was its interactive and proactive potential compared with much more passive mass media such as broadcast television.The use of the Internet and websites inside China to exposure stories of corruption and man-made disasters when the official media will not touch the stories has occurred with increasing frequency.The Chinese government, like all governments, is stricken with turf battles between ministries, commissions and other organs which all view the Internet as touching on their domain of authority or interest.
    Despite particular ‘Chinese characteristics’ the state’s bid to go online with its citizens is following the well-observed pattern of other jurisdictions, described by McKinsey consultants Al-Kibisi, et al. (2001) as putting citizens ‘online’ rather than ‘in line’. This includes a three-stage progression.The first stage sees individual government departments develop their own web-sites, and often involves outsourcing the process. The second stage sees the development of inter-departmental co-operation, which in turn requires a coordinating authority. The third stage, not yet achieved in China, is the exploitation of the full commercial potential of Government online through a single Government portal. Chinese government wants to expand the e-citizenry, but it will take a long –term efforts to achieve the goal.
     
    A comparison of China’s IT strategy and initiatives with the Estonian Government’s strategy and initiatives
    We have analyzed China’s IT strategy and initiatives and the Estonian Government’s strategy and initiatives. Now we compare the two country’s IT strategy and initiatives.First,we compare the similar point. The Estonian Government has early realized a close relationship between information and communication technologies and higher productivity.The Chinese government also found the commercial benefits from the information technology.
    In 1998, the Estonian government made IT strategic decisionto become a information society. The Estonian government thought that the IT and the internet is a key pillar of Estonia’s future economy.
    So the government has been allocating about one percent of the annual national budget to the IT development. The country also made foreign investment in the IT sector. The Estonian government implemented the e-government strategy. The strategy was implemented in three stages. The first stage focused on the modernization of government agencies’ document management and redesigning and computerizing the entire document,from the initial capture of a record, to its signing, registration, processing, archival and preservation. The second stage focused on modernizing public sector databases. The third stage involved the development of several projects including an electronic ID card, e-signature, e-Citizen, TOM, e-Tax Board, and the digitization of public libraries.These projects helped to develop Estonia's Internet-based ICT infrastructure. Through the government’s efforts, the e –government technological infrastructure became operational.
    Chinese government also implemented the e-government strategy. The Chinese Government Online Project also was implemented in three stages. We have analyzed the ChineseGovernment Online project. The Government Online Project can provide more effective coordination between and across government organizations at all levels and Make available to the public government information, while also reducing government expenses by increasing administrative efficiency. The first stage and second stage was easy to implement. But the third stage demanded that the government need to take a long –term effort to achieve the goal.
    The cornerstone of Estonia's information society is a modem e-state infrastructure, commonly known as "X-Road". Digital signatures and ID cards are the basic elements enabling the creation for citizens of high-quality integrated e-services, and the reduction for the government of traditional interaction costs. But the Chinese government launched the “golden project”as a series of separate information infrastructure initiatives. The project was used to build a national information highway as a path to modernization and economic development and drive development of information technology in China. The “X-road” project of the Estonia’s government and the “golden project” of the Chinese government have somesimilarity.
    The Estonia’s government implemented the 'virtual office'project to create an Internet portal to become the main channel fore-government services so that the citizens can participate in the information society.State information systems have an obligation to communicate with the citizen's office and reflect the state ofprocessing their affairs to that office. That means the citizen no longer needs to search forservices, but has the opportunity to order services and to follow up the processing of thesewithout leaving his or her "office"Since the Citizen's portal is connected to the Internet applications of the main Estoniancommercial banks, users can carry out payments for specific services like state duties or customsand money transfers which usually occur in less than two hours. In China,there were some provinces to implement the ‘virtual office’, such as the Exit and Entry Administration of Hangzhou’s Public Security Bureaulaunched awebsite enabling overseas people to apply for a Chinese visa via the Internet. The project can provide information on rules andregulations concerning exit and entry procedures and the certificates needed for visa applications.Applicants could also use the Internet to fill out the necessary forms and make appointments to obtain the visa. This saved the citizen’s time and energy.
    The Estonian government has developed an impressive array of e-government services to improve the efficiency of the government.The Estonian government built the Cabinet meeting room with sleek PCsterminals and cordless keyboards that ministers activate with their ID card.Thisnew electronic environment, coupled with the use of digital signatures on official documents, hasvirtually eliminated paperwork.Ministers go over draft bills and regulations, put in theircomments and suggestions, and vote online. The Estonian government launched itsdirect democracy portal to create a tool that would allow people to have an impact on government work by being able tospeak up about all spheres of life. The purpose of the project was to launch a discussion between thegovernment and Estonia's citizens and residents about possible applications of ICT and theInternet. As a result,e-democracy in Estonia can be formed.Estonia became the first country in the world to enable its citizens nationwideto vote over the Internet for a political election - municipal government election.Citizens couldvote electronically ahead of the polling day with a possibility to change their vote on the ElectionDay.
    The Chinese government also implemented the e –democracy project. The citizens can browse the government’s websites to learn the new information and rules. The citizens can realizethe government's policy by this. In China, many government’s agencies had built the government’s mailbox. If you have some good points and suggestions about how to improve the government’s service and efficiency, you can send your ideas into the mailbox to make the government know your suggestions.At the same time,to survive in the socialist market economy the corporate spin-offs have to undergo state enterprise reformto compete with the growing number of small and medium-sized enterprises. These SMEs are frequentlystarted up by entrepreneurial Chinese graduate students, some returning from overseas with a goodknowledge of Western markets, technologies and business skills.
    The Estonian government and the Chinese governmentimplemented some similar project to improve the efficiency of the government .At the same time,they provided some useful projects to promote the development of the future economy. But they also met some challenges and difficulties to overcome. So they need to take a long-term effort to achieve their goal of the national IT strategy.
     A summarizing report on China’s on national IT strategy and initiatives 作业代写
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Reference list:
    Maria Stsekolovits:e-Government in EstoniaEstablishing the World's LeadingInformation Society,Friedrich-Aiexander-UniversitatErlangen-Niirnberg
    Peter Lovelock and John Ure: E-Government in China