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Reshaping Environments 作业代写

    Part B Group Assignment
     
     
    Phase 1
     Reshaping Environments 作业代写
    Upon consideration of the multiple working definitions available in Bender et al (2012) and the given task, our group chose working definition 9: Sustainability is ethical human behaviour that is aware and nourishing of every interaction, therefore contributing to the persistence of the global environment. We identified the key terms in this working definition to be ethical human behaviour, persistence, nourishment, and interaction. Ethical human behaviour is important to our definition of sustainability because only ethical actions will benefit the water system when altered to suit human needs and norms. Sustainability is in essence a form of persistence, in this context a system, and in order for persistence to take place the system must be nourished (Bender et al 2012). When a system is being nourished, it is inevitably interacting with its environment. With successful nourishment and persistence of the system, due to the stated interaction, the global environment will benefit in turn. The rewritten working definition, in relation to the water system in the Bonview catchment, Doncaster is as follows; sustainability is the behaviour of humans which consequently allows the water system in the Bonview catchment, Doncaster to persist while suiting human needs and norms.
     
    The three possible temporal boundaries we chose were from 10 years ago, last year and 20 years into the future. In reference to sustainability, confining our analysis to this time frame of 10 years ago allows us to observe the changes to the system from human attempts to address their needs or norms. When considering only last year, we can observe the more recent changes and the progression that humans have made in the system. In order to plan changes and predict the effects of human reshaping, we shall consider 20 years into the future.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Possible Spatial Boundaries:

    This boundary is considered because the Williamsons road is the highest point in the map. The left side of Wilson road will be affected by the catchment because the height on the right side is higher than the left side of Wilson road.

    This potential boundary is considered because it incorporates both residential and social aspects of the catchment, covering the human needs and norms required for analysis to answer the demands of task.

    This spatial boundary is considered and chosen because it targets the main catchment area according to its landform. It includes the highest and lowest areas of the catchment and Ruffey Lake Park where most of the surface water terminates.
     
     
    Maslow (1943) defines the physical needs of humans as the bottom of the ‘hierarchy of needs’, meaning that these must first be attained in order to continue to fulfil all other needs (Williams, 2012). The physical needs are described as physiological needs; breathing, water, sex etc. Then, the socio-psychological needs are reached in the next stages of the hierarchy included in safety, love and belonging, self-esteem and self-actualisation (Maslow, 1943).
     
    Max-Neef (1991) described needs as a system; failing to meet one need will have consequences in other areas of need (Williams, 2012). Arguing that all needs; for example, protection, subsistence and creation, are all equally important and interact with each other, yet some are measured easier than others. Max-Neef also goes on to explain that when biological needs are satisfied it supports the subsequent needs; bio-psychological, psychological and socio-cultural and in turn, when the higher needs are met, it develops the other needs (Max-Neef and Ekins, 1992).  The human needs are explained as a complex system which are interrelated and each aspect is weighted equally, this model is more appropriate than Maslow’s model when considering this task, because the Bonview catchment affects humans in a socio-psychological way rather than primarily a physical way, which is Maslow’s argument that physical needs are more important.
     
    Sustainability is a complex idea that is not fixed across disciplines. This means it is difficult to measure and does not have any form of standardised measurement. Therefore, we use indicators that suggest the sustainability of the issue at hand, rather than one form of measurement. Multiple indicators of various of types need to be used when attempting to measure sustainability because it is such a multifaceted concept. In the Bonview Catchment, the water level of Ruffey Lake could be measured as a biophysical quantitative indicator. This would be indicative of the affects of human reshaping within the catchment system as they attempt to satisfy their needs. For example, the need for shelter has developed into the norm of building houses on concrete foundations, causing less water to be absorbs into the immediate area. The introduction of these impervious surfaces are satisfiers to human needs and norms, as stated above, but the resulting excess water run off must be considering in relation the persistence of the Bonview water system. Consequently, the water level in Ruffey Lake, at the bottom of the catchment, will be higher, which is not sustainable for the ecological system, as the water levels should naturally fluctuate (Coops et al, 2003). Melbourne Water provides reports to Manningham City Council detailing the water levels in Ruffey Lake, which is appropriate data would be sourced (Melbourne Water, 2013). Another indicator in the Bonview Catchment that could suggest the system’s sustainability is population, which is a biophysical indicator that can be measured quantitatively, also. As population increases, sustainability becomes harder to attain (Grossman, 2012). Therefore, measuring population will indicate the direction in which population is heading, and in turn sustainability. We would source the population of the catchment from reputable sources such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the census.
     
    Qualitative indicators of sustainability in the Bonview Catchment include visible rubbish and the health of flora and fauna. The visible rubbish within the catchment relates to its sustainability because the litter will introduce pollutants and contaminants into the ecology of the system, inhibiting the catchment system’s ability to sustain itself.  Considering that the visible rubbish would be used as a qualitative indicator, observations would be the primary method of collecting this data.The health of the flora and fauna is indicative of the system’s sustainability because this shows the result of the impact humans have had on the system. For example, the vegetation at Ruffey Park is dependent on rainwater to survive, yet if humans build an impervious surface covering it, the health of the flora and fauna will be compromised, as it will no longer have access to the rainwater. This would be measured by observations, as it is a qualitative indicator. In relation to our working definition of sustainability, the sustainability of the catchment is directly associated to human actions, which is reflected in the biophysical indicators we have explored.
     
    Social indicators are another means of measuring sustainability. An indicator that reflects the social norms of the humans within the catchment, in relation to the water system’s sustainability, is an accurate reflection of the system’s ability to persist. Specifically, the number of people who support sustainable urban development within the Bonview Catchment could be measured to show the opinions and willingness of the populace toward actively modifying their behaviour. Social norms can either have a positive or negative effect on the environment; for example, if the results of the data showed that the majority of the population of the catchment were in favour of sustainable urban development this would be the social norm, which would in turn benefit the water system and its ability to be sustained (Williams, 2012). Another social indicator of the efforts to achieve sustainability is the amount of money invested in preserving Ruffey Park and Ruffey Lake, provided by the government. The importance of scale in analysing a system is made obvious when considering the Bonview Catchment as part of the larger system or supra-system because the Manningham City Council expenditure on recreational parks may not an accurate reflection of larger bodies of authority’s intentions, such as the state government (Moore, 2012). We would confine our data collection to the scale of the local government and council. This data would show the governments attempts to reshape the environment in order to suit human needs and norms, by sustaining the water system at the Bonview Catchment, which would be provided by the Manningham City Council (Manningham City Council, 2013).
     
    A social indicator that is measure qualitatively could be the visible rubbish. Although this was also used as a biophysical indicator, the justification for it being a social indicator differs. Humans have an emotional need to interact with nature and it is an accepted norm that access to nature should be readily available (Green et al). This human need and norm would not be satisfied if the aesthetic quality of the Bonview Catchment were compromised. Rubbish and pollutants will be concentrated in Ruffey Lake as it is the terminating point of the water system, yet it is also a point of recreational activity and one of the primary locations where these interactions take place as it is located in Ruffey Park. Therefore, the concentration of litter and human activity are paradoxically linked, giving this indicator great importance.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    文本框: HUMAN 
Social Interaction:
Psychological needs of interacting with others satisfied outside the catchment.
     
     
     
     

    文本框: HUMAN
Social Interaction: Psychological needs of interacting with others met in communal area such as Ruffey Park.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    流程图: 过程: NON-HUMAN
Protection: Biological need of shelter met by parkland, such as Ruffey Park, Doncaster; green areas such as trees and grass are norms
流程图: 过程: HUMAN 
Housing: Biological need of shelter met by housing; size of house and amount impervious surfaces are defined norm.
    文本框: HUMAN
Subsistence: biological, psychological need to survive met through norm of distribution networks such as the Doncaster shopping centre.
文本框: NON-HUMAN
Subsistence: biological need of animals for food and water provided by Ruffey Park.
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    Phase 2
     
    Table 1
    Identify: needs met at the location the satisfier used to meet the needs the type of satisfier the norm(s) that are driving the choice of satisfier the type of norm (see Appendix 1) the level of government whose policy applies to this norm
    Humans (x2) Subsistence Shopping Centre Synergic The consumption of goods is needed to stay alive Descriptive State
    Leisure Park Synergic outdoor activities are healthy and enjoyable Descriptive/Injunctive Local
                 
                 
    Non-humans (x2) Protection Protection provided by system Synergic Animal’s need for a home Descriptive/Stated State/Local
    Subsistence Water Regulation Synergic Water is essential for flora and fauna to thrive Descriptive State/Local
               
               
     
    Indicator: Population
    Reason: Population over an area significantly affects the level of resource demand and usage in an area. It is a critical element to be considered when making development plans,
     
    Potential Pollution On Surface Water
    90% of the 4.8 Mega litre of water used in Vic is surface water; the other 10% is ground water. So calculating the use of rainfall/surface water is significant.
     
    Surface Water Pollution Potential
    This indicator estimates the approximate percentage possible of surface water pollution in comparison to the total amount of rainfall in the Bonview Catchment area. Surface water consists of any type of water collected on the surface of the catchment, including lakes, streams, run-offs from impervious surface and water being absorbed by soil.
    Such indicator is chosen because to have a sustainable environment, the area should have minimal water pollutions. Having clean water helps sustain the environment in the following ways:
     
     Reshaping Environments 作业代写
    Social
    Minimal water pollution can promote enjoyable and clean lakes or water reserves, these environments can be beneficial to the mental health of the surrounding community; for households using water tanks, it also provides cleaner water that can be used in more situations rather than polluted water; the streets, parks and open areas where water may flow to would result in a better environment, hence all social activities conducted in these areas are more pleasurable, when people live around pleasurable environments they tend to be more friendly to each other and the environment as they develop a better sense of community;
    Economical
    When water pollution levels are low in an area, it reduces the chances of potential problems for future water-related developments; the costs of clean water resources provision can also be cut down when people are able to use clean rainwater; water is not only essential for living beings, almost every industry requires water in some parts of their production process, having more usable surface water reduces the amount water resources being wasted.
    Environmental
    Water pollution degrades the level of soil health, therefore cleaner water promotes better soil; excellent water quality in an area allows more flora and fauna to thrive; water pollution does not stop at the site’s boundary, polluted surface water often flows to elsewhere throw soil, drainage or runoffs, affecting the state of environment on a relatively bigger scale than its own;
     
     
    Potential pollution on rainfall in Bonview Catchment - Ratings
    Assessed factors:
    o   Toxic chemicals from plant fertilizers
    o   Littering
    o   Animal waste
    o   Motor oil
    o   Toxic garden chemicals
    o   Toxic chemicals from occupied buildings (e.g. classrooms)
    o   Air/dust pollution
    Pollution level description:
    Level 1: Environmentally friendly controlled, no presence of littering, organic wastes or matters present, strong distribution of plants and plant fertilizers may be used, little to none motor oil.
    Level 2: Moderate littering present, moderate level of motor oil, toxic chemicals from buildings and gardens, light air pollution.
    Level 3: Moderate to strong littering present, heavy motor oil present, toxic chemicals from occupied buildings and gardens, moderate air/dust pollution.
     

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Reflection
     
    In our selection of temporal boundaries, we have considered the timeframes allowing for the different types of changes that have occurred over a period of 10 years, which will provide quantitative and qualitative data regarding human effects on the sustainability of the system. The following 20 year period set out as the third temporal boundary for this task will provide the opportunity for change in the system to be observed after examination of the data gathered in the previous period. These boundaries are quite narrow in scale however, and limit the effectiveness of any data collected. For example considering the coverage of impervious surfaces in the catchment 100 years ago rather than limiting our analysis to 10 years ago would provide greater depth in to the impact it has had on the system.
    While considering the past 10 years, we can observe some social norms and develop better understanding of the needs of the community, through figurative water usages, land area developments, household water-related plans or installments and other government regulations. Furthermore, considering the future 20 years positions us into thinking about the trends in the norms and needs of the community. However, by considering the social norms and needs of this area, we have overlooked the natural environment changes that have occurred or may eventually take place, these natural changes may include natural disasters, draughts, earthquakes, El Nino & La Nina cycle and floods etc. The timeframe for these natural changes to occur vary from momentarily to a few years, which we have not considered. The community is also changing at a faster pace than it has been, perhaps considering 20 years time in the future would lead us to overlook at patterns or stages of development that have taken place within the timeframe, such as urban development within or surrounding the catchment area (new shopping areas or high density residential plans), changes in the ways water is supplied and landscape developments that deforms the catchment area etc.
     
    The spatial boundaries we have chosen to explore incorporate what we believe to be all facets of the catchment area, a product of substantial discussion and analysis. Whilst it may be effective when considering surface water flows and pollutions, we have overlooked the residential or social distributions in the immediate surrounds (environment) of the system. Residential distribution is important because it helps to define the needs of water usage and required developments. When striving for sustainable development, it is important to strive to accommodate the needs and norms of the human inhabitants. Some of the residents included in our spatial boundary may not visit the Ruffey Lake Park, the most obvious aspect of the Bonview catchment system, consequently reducing potential attachment and concern for the system which could undermine drives to reform human behviour. In addition, it has also become hard to identify the relationships between our designated catchment with its surrounding environments, how the surrounding landscape or residents are influenced or impact on the Bonview Catchment.
    Attempting to achieve sustainability is solving a complex integration of issues, as previously defined; and the task has confirmed the point that there should be awareness of these interactions prior to attempting any redevelopments. A range of indicators has been used to provide as much information as possible to evaluate the sustainability of a development. Every indicator may reveal one or more aspects about the sites current or trending states, however, they are not sufficient to be the sole consideration of any decision making. To evaluate the sustainability in the Bonview Catchment, there is a need to consider many aspects, such as residential, social and environmental. For example, if we select soil pollution as our indicator, it will affect our evaluation because there are other forms of pollution in the catchment, like water pollution. In other words, we need to select indicators, which can provide more information or consider more aspects. Attempting to address the task by considering only one or two indicators would not provide a sufficient understanding of the complexities of the system, which has been made evident above in the explorations of the system. Only a handful of the almost infinite number of interactions have been considered as indicators, but the ones that hold the greatest significance to our completion of the task have been included.
     
     Reshaping Environments 作业代写
     
    Reference List
     
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