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archaeology 作业代写

    COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA
    Copyright Regulations 1969
    archaeology 作业代写
    WARNING
    This material has been reproduced and communicated to
    you by or on behalf of the University of Sydney
    pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act).
    The material in this communication may be subject
    to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or
    communication of this material by you may be the
    subject of copyright protection under the Act.
    Do not remove this notice.
    ARCA2602
    archaeology 作业代写
    Report writing
    & Publications
    See Chapter 10 of the textbook
    Ina Kehrberg: ina.kehrberg-ostrasz@sydney.edu.au
    A discovery dates only from the
    time of the record of it, and not
    from the time of its being
    found in the soil.
    (Pitt Rivers 1898:28)
    Publication - necessary to
    preserve and disseminate
    data and generate further
    discussion.
    Publication & dissemination of results
    ‘What am I writing about and who am I writing for’
    (i.e. audience & function)
    • professional/academic
    • government agency
    • client(s)
    • community group(s)
    Purpose of Report or Publication
    • ‘Paper’ in a journal or ‘chapter’ in an edited volume
    • Book or monograph (single author)
    • Technical Report
    • Consultancy Report
    archaeology 作业代写
    • Popular press
    • Other media (WWW, documentary, etc.)
    Types of „Archaeological Publication‟
    Field Records & Reports –
    Separation of „fact‟ from „interpretation‟
    “OBJECTIVE”
    IDENTIFICATION
    archaeology 作业代写
    • Site Location Information
    • Site Descriptions
    • Survey Plans
    • Sketches, photographs etc.
    • Excavation Records
    • Artefact Descriptions
    • Ecofacts
    “SUBJECTIVE”
    INTERPRETATION
    • Commentaries
    • Questions
    • Reported Information / Oral
    Traditions
    • Artefact “Identifications”
    • Excavation Records
    • Reconstructions
    • Histories
    INTRODUCTION
    • General information about the project and
    the subject of the report
    • Any specific aims or requirements
    GENERAL REPORT
    STRUCTURE
    BACKGROUND
    • Review of theoretical/practical situation:
    – General archaeological problems/issues/questions
    – Previous work in area, or on the topic
    – Legalities/legislative requirements
    – May include ethical issues
    • General description of the field area (location,
    size, environment, etc.)
    • Ethnographic or historical material
    METHODS & CONSTRAINTS
    archaeology 作业代写
    • What, where and how did you survey, excavate, interview, etc.
    in the field
    – (e.g. sampling strategies, specific methods & protocols)
    • Analyses undertaken
    – e.g. dating, artefact measurements, soil analysis, pollen, etc.
    – Scientific protocols & context of other analyses
    – Scientific reporting (technical) vs. – public reporting (how and why)
    • Constraints affecting data collection and analysis
    • Adaptation/modification of methods in relation to those
    constraints.
    • Should allow the reader to check your results & conclusions
    against your methods
    RESULTS
    • Description of the evidence collected in the field
    and/or laboratory.
    • Data analysis including tables or graphic
    representation of major results.
    • Must be consistent with methods used and
    conclusions reached.
    CONCLUSIONS
    • Depends on the audience.
    – May summarize findings
    – May make recommendations for
    • Further research
    • Legal/legislative actions
    REFERENCES
    • Only reference sources cited in text.
    • A bibliography of additional readings may be
    necessary.
    archaeology 作业代写
    APPENDICES
    • Raw data/artefact inventories and other items of
    relevance.
    • Technical studies or contributing studies by
    specialists.
    • Note; this does NOT mean you that simply
    include photocopies of your hand-written field
    notes.
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    • Recognizes
    – Commissioning agent (e.g. company or university).
    – Funding sources
    – Any permissions granted for access to land, sites or
    materials.
    – Advice (technical or otherwise)
    – Assistance
    • Community
    • Volunteers
    • Any other
    GRAPHICS AND ILLUSTRATIONS:
    • maps, plans, artefact drawings, illustrations and
    photographs
    – Proper use of conventions
    – Consistent style if possible
    – Maps and illustrations are referred to in the text as
    „Figure 1, 2, 3….‟, while tables of data are „Table 1,
    2…‟
    – Use only where relevant
    – Determine what is appropriate and relevant (i.e. just
    because you can create a chart doesn‟t mean you
    should create a chart)
    Language and expression
    • Write clearly – minimise use of jargon & specialist
    language
    – „To ensure an adequate sample the methodology required
    non-probabilistic subsurface sampling along a linear
    transect.‟
    – „To ensure that area was properly sampled it was necessary to
    excavate three 1x1m test pits along a line.‟
    • Structure
    – Clear development of the case/argument/problem/project
    Technical Reports
    • Uses specialist language & terminology
    • Includes high level of methodological
    discussion
    • Includes high level of data (tabulated &
    graphic)
    • Detailed plans
    • May include appendices of „raw‟ data
    Consultancy Reports
    • Responds to the needs of the client – i.e. it must fulfil the „brief‟ for
    the project
    • Provides sufficient methodological discussion & data to allow
    external professional reviewers to assess
    • Consequently, it balances between sufficient specialist language &
    terminology to inform the client while also appropriately describing
    technical issues and findings
    • Recognises client & community confidentiality and sensitivities
    • May include appendices of „raw‟ data or additional technical detail
    • Includes an Executive Summary (usually one page)
    • Provides recommendations for further action
    – Technical (dating, survey, excavation)
    – Legal (responses to legislative/legal requirements)
    Publication & dissemination of results
    • Permission to include material in reports (i.e. „sensitive‟ material
    or information‟)
    – Confidential corporate information – may alert the
    competition
    – Intellectual property
    – Religious sensibilities
    – Different reports for different people
    – E.g. „area clearance‟ models of reporting
    • Multiple versions for multiple audiences
    • Legal Consequences
    ‘Area clearance’ model of reporting.
    • Full reporting
    • Area clearance reporting
    (indicating buffer zones)
    Artefact scatter
    Rock art
    Ethnographic
    Highly sensitive
    Moderately sensitive